Drought: Five Things You Need To Know About This Rainy Winter

By Warren Tenney

Many people are wondering what this rainy, snowy winter means for Arizona after more than two decades of drought. Here are five things we know right now.

1. It’s raining and snowing in the right places. So far, it has been raining and snowing in locations that have the potential to increase water in two major reservoirs, Roosevelt Lake and Lake Mead. These reservoirs are key to drinking water supplies for the majority of Arizona’s population.

  • Lake Mead relies on runoff from snow pack in the Upper Colorado River Basin, primarily from two main tributaries: the Green River in southwestern Wyoming and the Upper Colorado River in western Colorado. December snowpack in the Colorado River Basin has ranged from 50 percent to three times above normal.  The result of this above normal precipitation will likely boost the reservoir levels of Lake Mead.
  • Roosevelt Lake relies on rain and snow in the watershed that feeds the Salt River. This watershed reaches into the high country northeast of Phoenix. So far, the watershed has received about 45 percent more precipitation than normal. As of January 25th, 211,000 acre-feet of water had flowed into Roosevelt Lake. (One acre-foot of water is enough to serve three average Arizona households for a year.)

2. This is a good start. Weather in February and March must remain cold and wet to hold and increase the gains and potential gains in both reservoirs. Water resource managers are pleased with rain but prefer snow accompanied by extended weeks of cold temperatures. Low temperatures keep the snow on the ground longer, which stops the water in the ground from evaporating and helps to reduce the threat of summer wildfires. The slow flow from melting snow also delivers cleaner water and is easier to manage in a water delivery system. So while it has already been a good winter, we will have to wait until April to know if it has been a great season.

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This is a map of the  watershed where the springs, creeks and rivers originate that feed into Roosevelt Lake, a key drinking water reservoir for the Phoenix Metro area.

3. The drought is not over. Research shows that drought cycles and wet cycles in Arizona run 20 to 30 years. A drought cycle has fewer wet years than dry and a wet cycle has a greater number of above average rainy years. The current record-breaking drought cycle began around 1996. The last six years have been the driest on record in the Salt and Verde rivers’ watersheds. If the weather follows historical trends, the current drought could be coming to a close within the next several years, but there’s no certainty and it does not factor in climate change. It would take a few years of greater than average snow and rain to begin to heal the wounds left by the current drought. This includes helping to replenish local aquifers used to back up water available in dams and reservoirs. Plus, two or three years of well above-average precipitation on the watersheds that feed the Salt and Verde rivers would help to re-establish depleted wildlife, such as quail and deer. That much precipitation would help to restore overgrazed grasslands and begin to create a healthier forest, with trees not as susceptible to diseases and bark beetle infestation.

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4. AMWUA cities are built for drought. Sunshine is the norm in Central Arizona and rain is an event. We have never denied that we live in an arid part of the country and we plan for drought cycles. AMWUA cities save water underground for future use, keep leaks within their water distribution systems to some of the lowest rates in the country, and re-use 99 percent of their wastewater. Salt River Project (SRP) operates the system of reservoirs and canals that store water from the Salt and Verde rivers. After a rare rainy year in 2010, SRP has faced six dry years on the rivers’ watersheds. Despite record low precipitation, Roosevelt Lake has remained half full and SRP has been able to fill water orders for farmers, industries and cities. SRP was forced to limit water orders by 33 percent in 2002, the driest year in the Southwest in 1,200 years. That year, the SRP system was only 25 percent full and Roosevelt Lake alone was down to 10 percent full. It was the first reduction since the 1950s.

Central Arizona Project (CAP) operates the canal that brings Colorado River water released from Lake Mead to Arizona. CAP has not yet had to reduce water supplies due to a Colorado River shortage. The state’s cities, farmers and industries currently are working together to maintain and increase the level of water stored in Lake Mead and prevent a water shortage declaration next year. The recent increase in winter precipitation and snowpack in the Colorado River Basin decreases the chances that a shortage would be declared in 2018. So, while we regularly face metrological droughts, our water supply droughts are rare.

5. You can make the rain count. Homeowners, apartment managers and businesses make a contribution to our reservoirs when they turn off their irrigation systems and auto-fills on their pools each time it rains. More homeowners and communities also are harvesting the rain by contouring their landscapes to hold storm runoff. Swales built around trees and plants help rainwater stay in place longer so the water soaks deep into the landscape and stays available to plants and trees longer. All of this reduces the need to irrigate and the demand on city water supplies, which in turn saves more drinking water for drinking.

For 48 years, Arizona Municipal Water Users Association has worked to protect our member cities’ ability to provide assured, safe and sustainable water supplies to their communities. For more water information visit http://www.amwua.org. 

 

Grease Coop: A Beautiful Solution To An Ugly Problem

By Warren Tenney

Grease sent down drains in restaurant kitchens has plagued city sewer systems since they were built. The Tempe Grease Cooperative takes an artful step toward better controlling the ugly problem. The program saves money for the City of Tempe and its businesses and transforms a government regulation into a government benefit.

The Problem: Grease, oils and fats from thousands of restaurants collect in cities’ wastewater systems. It requires expensive maintenance to stop all that grease from building up and blocking sewer lines. All AMWUA cities work hard to help businesses keep fats, oils and grease out of wastewater systems. They also encourage residents to save their own plumbing and their cities’ wastewater systems by cooling grease and then  putting it into the trash. A sewer line blocked by grease can cause sewage spills that are no fun to deal with.  Once grease-rich sewage reaches a wastewater treatment plant it also is more difficult and costly to clean and re-use. AMWUA cities treat and re-use wastewater to irrigate turf, store underground and cool the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station.

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This is an industrial grease interceptor or grease trap.

 

It’s not the vats of oil left over in restaurants from French fries and fried chicken that create the problem. This is called “yellow” grease and is a valuable commodity picked up by vendors and used to create biofuels. The problem is “brown” grease  cleaned off dirty dishes and mopped off restaurant floors. It has to go somewhere and state and city regulations work to keep it out of sewers. Small restaurants must attach tanks to their sinks to trap the grease. Larger restaurants usually bury tanks, most often under their parking lots, to intercept greater amounts of fats, oils and grease. Cities require restaurants to hire companies to regularly clean and dispose of grease caught in these traps. Tempe inspectors find too many traps are not cleaned often enough or not cleaned to city standards and allow too much grease to enter the sewer system. This causes tension among restaurants, cleaning companies and the city.

The Solution: The city decided it wanted to offer restaurants an alternative way to comply with city requirements and kicked off the voluntary Grease Cooperative three years ago. The city’s Grease Coop hires vendors on behalf of local restaurants to clean the restaurants’ grease traps. The Grease Coop offers additional services to power spray a restaurant’s sewer lines, make repairs to its grease trap when needed, and pick up its yellow grease to sell for biofuel production. Tempe gains because it knows the job is done right and can reduce the number of grease trap inspections and improve relations with busy restaurant owners. The restaurants that join the coop enjoy the benefits of an economy of scale – an average 15 to 20 percent reduction in the cost of hiring their own vendors. The coop also saves restaurant owners and managers time by taking over the responsibility of monitoring the vendors’ work. Three years later, 173 restaurants are in the cooperative.

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A City of Tempe vendor cleans a grease trap.

The Challenges: Tempe has 1,000 restaurants but, right now, the city is not actively recruiting businesses to join the Grease Coop. Tempe is working to grow the program in a manageable way so it can maintain the quality of its service. It has two challenges. First, administrative data, such as scheduling, billing, payments and compliance, are now entered by hand into electronic spreadsheets. The city is soliciting bids through January for a new software program that will allow administrative data to be recorded with a few clicks on a website. Restaurants, vendors and the city would have access to the program. The city expects the administration of the Grease Coop to be fully electronic by early to mid 2018. Second, Tempe also needs time to find, vet and procure more vendors who will do a good job at the right price.

The Future: Tempe operates the only city-managed Grease Coop in the country. Cities in California, Texas and Iowa are building programs and Dublin, Ireland, just launched a pilot program with Tempe’s guidance. Tempe hopes to inspire a regional Grease Coop joined by neighboring cities. A regional program would reduce costs for cities and restaurants and generate enough brown grease to begin transforming it into biogas at wastewater treatment plants where it can be used as a power source for plants or compressed into vehicle fuel.

We’re not the only people who think the Grease Coop is beautiful. The Alliance for Innovation is a partnership of 350 cities as large as New York and as small as Yuma. Every year the Alliance recognizes the country’s most innovative programs and in 2016 Tempe’s Grease Cooperative received the Alliance’s highest award. This little program that solves an ugly problem has a pretty brilliant future. Here’s a video that will help you learn more about the Grease Coop.

For 48 years, Arizona Municipal Water Users Association has worked to protect our member cities’ ability to provide assured, safe and sustainable water supplies to their communities. For more water information visit www.amwua.org.

AMWUA: Preparing For 2017 By Looking At 2016 Successes

By Warren Tenney

Like you, AMWUA and its member cities already are working toward 2017 goals. At the same time, we’re reviewing what went right in 2016. A look back provides a boost of confidence for us and we hope it will encourage you to get involved and help find ways to solve new and lingering water challenges. Here are a few examples of AMWUA’s work in 2016.

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Phoenix Councilwoman Thelda Williams,  AMWUA Board President, called the forum to order.

Legislature: AMWUA helped raise awareness about two state Senate bills that threatened to weaken Arizona’s requirement that new developments have a 100-year adequate water supply before building. Governor Doug Ducey ultimately decided to veto the bills. We also helped to stop or modify other bills that would have threatened the ability of our cities to deliver safe, reliable water. Just last month, AMWUA hosted a forum to inform lawmakers about current water issues and to explain the critical link between sound water policy and Arizona’s economic future.

Financing: In September, AMWUA partnered with the national Alliance for Water Efficiency to host a workshop that provided technical resources to help cities and private utilities develop and implement reasonable water rates. Reasonable water rates are fair to the customer, cover the cost of operating water and sewer systems, and promote conservation. In addition, AMWUA encouraged and participated in discussions to analyze financial issues impacting the Central Arizona Project (CAP) . CAP operates the 360-mile canal that delivers Colorado River water to Arizona cities. Understanding CAP’s finances helps the AMWUA cities prepare for future challenges that could affect the cost of Colorado River water they deliver to their citizens and businesses.

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Tonopah Desert Recharge Project Photo: CAP by Philip A. Fortnam

Research and Analysis: In 2016, AMWUA provided cities and their partners with practical and useful research outlining immediate water issues, such as recovering and distributing the water that Arizona has banked in underground aquifers. AMWUA also acted as the eyes and ears for our cities and kept them informed about current and pending water issues. You’ll find AMWUA staff at every major water meeting, such as CAP Board and Committee meetings, Salt River Project (SRP) Board meetings and the Groundwater Users Advisory Committee. I also serve on Governor Ducey’s Water Augmentation Council. We’re working to make sure the state has the water it needs to serve its cities, small towns, agriculture and industries well into the future.

Drought: The biggest ongoing topic among our city members – and all Arizona water professionals – for 2016, for 2017 and beyond is how Arizona can best respond to ongoing drought. The drought is affecting flows in the Colorado, Verde and Salt rivers, which supply the majority of Arizona’s residents with drinking water. Collaboration is the key to keeping our rivers healthy and our supplies reliable. In 2016, AMWUA regularly brought the cities’ water resource managers and water conservation professionals together with Arizona Department of Water Resources, CAP and SRP staff members to share information, challenges and ideas for solutions.

Conservation: In 2016, AMWUA’s assistant director joined the Board of the Alliance for Water Efficiency, which advocates for the efficient and sustainable use of water throughout North America. AMWUA’s Board of Directors also adopted a resolution to support exempting conservation rebates from federal income tax, just as energy rebates are exempt. AMWUA sought help from Arizona’s congressional delegation, encouraged Arizona communities to join the effort, and coordinated with the national coalition working to address the issue. AMWUA also updated its Xeriscape: Landscaping with Style Guide and provided copies to its members to distribute within their communities. 

Partnerships: If anyone knows the benefits of collaborating to solve problems, it’s a 47-year-old organization that helps 10 cities work together to assure a safe and reliable water supply. That’s why AMWUA spent 2016 continuing to build strong relationships with the Legislature, the Governor’s Office, the Arizona Chamber of Commerce and Industry, the Greater Phoenix Economic Council, The Nature Conservancy, the AgriBusiness and Water Council, the Environmental Protection Agency’s WaterSense Program and many others.

img_8063You may know us best through this AMWUA Blog. Our readership is growing every year. We have spent much of 2016 working on a new website that will premier in 2017. Throughout 2016 we continued to keep you informed about regional, state and city water news through our Facebook and Twitter pages. In September, we also started having fun on Instagram, where we share water facts and useful tips with pretty – and not so pretty – pictures. Come take a look at amwua.arizona, #conservationculture.

So, 2017 is going to be an interesting year for water. We’re hoping you’ll join us and use your voice to ensure safe, reliable water supplies remain at the forefront of policy decisions. We want our children and grandchildren to raise their families in a thriving state.

For 48 years, Arizona Municipal Water Users Association has worked to protect our member cities’ ability to provide assured, safe and sustainable water supplies to their communities. For more water information visit www.amwua.org.

 

Gilbert Grows Program To Help HOAs Lower Water Bills

By Warren Tenney

In the last two years, the Town of Gilbert has more than doubled the number of Homeowners Associations enrolled in a free program that takes the guesswork out of landscape irrigation. The program walks HOAs through the steps that lead to thriving landscapes while using less water and saving money. That information fosters greater harmony among HOA board members, residents, property managers and landscape contractors.

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Vintage Ranch

Gilbert’s HOA Landscape Irrigation Assistance Program calculates the acreage of turf and desert-adapted plantings in each HOA’s landscape and, with other detailed information, determines the volume of water needed to keep an HOA’s landscape healthy. Here’s what happens next.

  • The Town then compares the volume of water needed to the current amount of water the HOA is using. The Town first contacts HOAs that are exceeding the recommended volume of water by the highest percentages.
  • If the HOA agrees, Gilbert irrigation expert Jeff Lee meets with a board member, the property manager and the landscape contractor to determine how, when and where to make changes that would help the HOA use water more efficiently and, likely, lead to lower bills.
  • It doesn’t end there. Each month, the three representatives receive an email from Gilbert that shows the actual volume of water the HOA is using compared with the recommended volume.

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    Cooper Ranch

Most enrolled HOAs immediately reduce their water use to the volume the Town’s calculations suggest. Soon, specific problems within the irrigation system become obvious when parts of the landscape begin looking stressed.

Jeff helps the HOA determine how to solve these problems and suggests improvements to the irrigation system.  These improvements could mean changing the space between sprinklers, using more water-efficient sprinkler heads, or adding drip emitters that control pressure and ensure even watering. The HOA uses the initial savings from the water bill to invest in improving and maintaining its irrigation system so it can work at peak efficiency.

Gilbert started the HOA Landscape Irrigation Assistance Program in 2007 and it operated until 2011 when it was suspended due to the recession and staffing cutbacks. The program restarted in 2014 and had 20 HOAs enrolled by the end of the year. There are 52 communities enrolled in the program today.  All but seven irrigate their landscapes with water treated for drinking. The others use highly treated wastewater, called recycled or reclaimed water. These 52 communities have about 500 acres of grass and 500 acres of desert landscaping.

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Val Vista Place

So how effective is this program at saving water? Here are the statistics from Gilbert.

  • At the end of 2015, 36 communities were enrolled.
  • In 2013, these 36 communities were using 1.2 billion gallons of water for irrigation.
  • By the end of 2015, they were using 990 million gallons. That’s a savings of 235 million gallons.

That’s an impressive number, but some of the 36 communities didn’t enroll until the end of 2015, so the potential savings is even greater.

HOA boards are more comfortable knowing their communities are using just the right amount of water for irrigation and knowing what to expect in their water bills each month. More HOAs require their landscape contractors to have similar water-efficiency programs. At least one management company requires their landscape contractors to join Gilbert’s HOA Landscape Irrigation Assistance Program.

Josh Dupper of R.H. Dupper Landscaping Inc. said he has worked years perfecting his own computer program that estimates and irrigates the amount of water an HOA should be using to keep its landscape healthy. Josh has worked closely with Gilbert’s HOA Landscape Irrigation Assistance Program and calls Gilbert’s Jeff Lee a “wealth of knowledge” who has helped Josh improve the efficiency his own irrigation management program. Josh said creating a water-efficiency program for an HOA is complicated with a lot of math and science and Gilbert’s program is needed to help landscapers create better programs.

“You need the city to double check the accuracy for accountability,’’ Josh said. “It’s good to have checks and balances.”

Gilbert isn’t the only city that helps HOAs irrigate more efficiently and save money. Check with your city’s conservation professional for help.

For 47 years, Arizona Municipal Water Users Association has worked to protect our member cities’ ability to provide assured, safe and sustainable water supplies to their communities. For more water information visit www.amwua.org.

Water: A Conversation With Chandler Councilmember Rick Heumann

By Warren Tenney

When City of Chandler Councilmember Rick Heumann joined the AMWUA Board of Directors six years ago he knew this about water: “I drank it.” He knew Chandler had a water treatment plant and a wastewater treatment plant – and that he had been assigned to the board of an important regional water agency. When it came to water management, Mr. Heumann called himself a blank slate – but he wasn’t really. The business executive arrived on the AMWUA board without much water knowledge but with two convictions that make up the core of water management: you need a plan today to reach your goals in 20 or 30 years and successful plans require collaboration. Mr. Heumann also had insights gained from 20 years of community service, including sitting on Chandler’s Planning and Zoning Commission and Parks and Recreation Commission. The Councilmember, who ended up serving as president of the AMWUA Board, will attend his last meeting in December, so we sat down and talked to him about water.

The Surprises: Mr. Heumann worked to understand the complexities of the Central Arizona Project, the 360-mile canal that brings Colorado River water to the Phoenix Metro area and Tucson. He had to learn about the condition of the nation’s largest reservoir known as Lake Mead, the laws that allowed cities, Native American communities and small-heumannfarmers to share Colorado River water, the debt owed to the federal government for building the canal, and the energy needed from the coal-burning Navajo Generating Station (NGS) to lift the water uphill. “Why do you need all that power?” was Mr. Heumann’s first thought. “Just stick the canal there and it will flow down hill over hundreds of miles,” he now recalls. “Well, it’s not downhill it’s uphill, too. NGS is where the power comes from.” Mr. Heumann knows the NGS has been under scrutiny by the Environmental Protection Agency, but without it delivery of Colorado River water would stop. “You just can’t shut it down. You can’t build enough solar power to generate the power to move water uphill. But what’s the comprehensive approach over the next ten years?  Maybe we can use less of NGS, reduce the need for that by using wind, or nuclear, or solar or clean coal.”

The Big Question: There is one question about water that Councilmember Heumann gets most often: Are we going to run out of water? “When I talk about water, whether it’s a council meeting, a subcommittee meeting or chamber meeting, that’s one of the big things that come up. People read snippets and little tidbits of things and hear all the doom and gloom.” Mr. Heumann said there are two things people need to know: “One is that there is not an abundance of water, but there’s enough water if we use it right.” Small things people do add up, even if it’s not letting the water run when brushing your teeth or shaving or using a broom instead of a hose to regularly clean your driveway or patio. “It’s a restaurant not serving water unless you ask for water. How much does that save? Well, you know what, that glass of water may be 8 ounces, but if your restaurant serves 200 people a day that’s 1,600 ounces. Think how many gallons were wasted. Of those 200 customers, did 50 of them drink it? That’s 150 people you didn’t serve water to and all the dishwashing that goes along with it. So you start doing those incremental things.”

 

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The Progress: Councilmember Heumann is well aware it will take more than incremental conservation for Arizona to have enough water to thrive. He helped Chandler to become the first city in the state to pass a policy that ties land use to the city’s 100-year water supply. Here’s how it works: If Chandler residents benefit from a new high-water-use commercial development, such as providing a lot of jobs, the City will provide the new development with water. If a development uses a great deal of water but provides only a few jobs, such as a data center, it must buy its water on the open market. The policy’s goal is to ensure that once Chandler’s entire available land is developed, the last people to buy homes or build businesses still will have a 100-year supply of water. “Some people get offended and say, ‘You should let people do whatever they want.’ Well, no. Chandler has 64 square miles. When that last guy wants to build his subdivision or his business he has to have that water.” Mr. Heumann has only one regret about the policy: It should have been in place 20 years ago. “What I hope is that cities like Goodyear and Gila Bend and Buckeye, high-growth cities, like Gilbert, that they really take a look at this policy. Because it’s not a policy designed to say you can’t have water. It’s a policy designed to say we’ve allocated our water resources, we know how much we have now, we know our 100 year supply.”

The Future: In the six years Mr. Heumann has been on the AMWUA Board he has watched AMWUA’s role change. “It has changed and should change to really a marketing arm.  I think it’s really important our cities are educating our citizens about conservation, on the right way to use water, where it comes from, thinking for the long term. Your grandkids are going to live here. Are they going to live here in a sustainable manner?” He wants to see the successful water management practices developed by AMWUA cities shared with non-member cities, such as Prescott and Payson. Mr. Heumann also sees a need for AMWUA and others to educate members of the Arizona Legislature about water so they know how to balance the state’s water resources with demands for new development, particularly on the outskirts of the Valley and in rural areas where water tables are dropping from over pumping from too many wells. “The Legislature needs to understand we (AMWUA) represent 3.5 million people. This is about sustainability, so my kids and grandkids will be able to live here. The legislators need to get out in the water to fully understand what really drives the lifeblood of the valley and understand it isn’t just about what we do today. What we do today affects us long term. You’ve got to think about a plan.”

For 47 years, Arizona Municipal Water Users Association has worked to protect our member cities’ ability to provide assured, safe and sustainable water supplies to their communities. For more water information visit www.amwua.org.

The Art and Efficiency of Fountains in the Desert

By Warren Tenney

Water is life and nowhere is that more apparent than in the desert. Fountains and pools of water were built into ancient cities, including desert cities, for both practical and aesthetic reasons. They provided access to water for human needs, to support livestock, to grow food crops and gardens. Water features also cool the air creating microclimates and mitigating noise. They allow city dwellers to experience the relaxing charm of moving water that make fountains natural gathering places. They connect people to a precious, shared resource that is often not top of mind in our modern world.

Our desert cities work to strike a balance between the beauty and practicality of fountains. The City of Scottsdale continually weighs people’s attraction to fountains against the need to conserve water and control the cost of energy and maintenance that fountains demand. The city has 21 decorative fountains, down from the 32 the city maintained before 2008. Scottsdale has removed eight and shut off the water to three. Scottsdale has saved an estimated 830,000 gallons of water a year by initiating these changes to its fountains.

Here are some of the ways Scottsdale has been able to maintain its most enjoyed water features.

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  • In 1999, the City of Scottsdale began installing small water meters on every fountain. The meters allow the city to monitor water use, immediately find leaks and determine overflow. This sub-metering also helps the city to estimate how much water a proposed fountain would demand before approving it.
  • Nearly 100,000 people gather annually near the fountains and lagoon in front Scottsdale’s Civic Center Mall to enjoy festivals and concerts. The Mall’s 7-foot deep lagoon was an enthralling water feature with fish and swans, but it used a great deal of water and was difficult to maintain.  In 2008, the city raised the lagoon to a depth of 3.5 feet, reducing the volume of water it held by 550,000 gallons, and added a filtration and automated treatment system to the water feature to reduce maintenance.
  • Every fountain in Scottsdale now has a filter and automated treatment system, similar to systems used in commercial swimming pools. An employee regularly skims and cleans the fountains using portable and automatic vacuums, reducing the number of times the filter needs to be backwashed and saving water. In the past, backwashing happened every week, but now the city backwashes fountain filters only when needed. The added benefit: A partially dirty filter traps smaller suspended particles creating clearer water for the fountain. The employee who cleans the fountains uses brooms and leaf blowers to clean around the fountains instead of a hose.
  • Fountains that once flowed 24 hours a day now flow only when buildings and plazas are open and people can enjoy them. This saves water used, water lost to evaporation and electricity. (This also has eliminated the joy some people took in filling the fountains with soap in the middle of the night and creating a bubbling mess to clean up the next day.)
  • An art installation called Horseshoe Falls Fountain on the corner of Marshall Way and Indian School Road creates fog as its water flows. During the first month of its installation this popular piece of public art used 50,000 gallons of water. The city curtailed the fog to two minutes at the top of peak hours and added a button that allows people to view the enticing fog for 30 seconds. These changes reduced the fountain’s water consumption to 1,500 gallons a month.20161109-scottsdale-water-feature-volcano-2

The technology that created both simple and spectacular fountains around the world freed people from the need to live close to natural rivers, lakes or streams. Fountains helped to create cities. Now cities are working to keep water as part of their art and architecture while making fountains as water-efficient as possible.

If you have a fountain or water feature in your yard, you can get help to make sure it’s operating efficiently by calling your city’s conservation professional.

For 47 years, Arizona Municipal Water Users Association has worked to protect our member cities’ ability to provide assured, safe and sustainable water supplies to their communities. For more water information visit www.amwua.org.