2017 Legislative Session: Four Things That Went Right For Water

By Warren Tenney

So far 2017 has been a good year for water. The Southwest had a rainy winter, an official shortage of Colorado River water appears delayed another year, and there was broad support for water issues at the Arizona Legislature. The Arizona Department of Water Resources, Salt River Project, Central Arizona Project, Southern Arizona Water Users Association, counties, water professionals, agricultural interests and environmental groups joined AMWUA to make this a good Legislative session for water. It helps that Arizona’s Governor and a growing number of lawmakers recognize that water fuels our economy.

AMWUA worked hard this year to remind lawmakers that Arizona’s economic health is dependent on reliable water supplies. AMWUA sponsored two events for lawmakers to discuss the state’s water successes and the importance of continuing to plan, manage and invest in our water supplies. In addition to these events, here are a few highlights from the 2017 session.

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1. The Governor and legislators understand that the Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR) plays a key role in finding solutions to our current and future water challenges. To that end, AMWUA has long advocated for a well-funded water agency that can attract and retain the brightest water minds. This year ADWR received an operating budget of $15,990,100, an increase of $858,400 over last year. This modest increase will actually provide a good return for Arizona. Investing in the management of our water resources has always given us large dividends. This increase will help the agency address complex water issues facing the state. Here are just two examples:

  • Drought Planning: The water in the Colorado River’s largest reservoir, Lake Mead, is over-allocated among the states that share it. On average, Lake Mead doesn’t receive enough Colorado River water to meet the demand of water users in Arizona, California and Nevada, which results in a decline in the Lake’s water levels. If Mead continues to fall to pre-determined levels, the federal government will declare an official Colorado River water shortage. A declaration of shortage would first impact farmers in central Arizona, and further reductions eventually could impact cities. ADWR is working with representatives from other states and water users within Arizona towards a negotiated agreement to help protect and conserve water in Lake Mead. The approved State budget includes funds to help with this effort.
  • Water Rights Conflict: The state must also resolve the question of the extent and priority of water rights in the Gila River and Little Colorado River systems. This has been a source of litigation in the state for the last 40 years. This litigation complicates Arizona water policy because it makes it nearly impossible for thousands of water users – particularly in rural communities – to have legal assurance regarding their water rights. ADWR’s budget includes funds to hire staff to provide the technical support needed to move this issue forward.

2. The Central Arizona Water Conservation District (CAWCD) is the legal name of the entity that operates the Central Arizona Project (CAP), the 336-mile canal that delivers Colorado River water from Lake Havasu to Phoenix and Tucson. The CAWCD Board of Directors is responsible for maintaining the more than 30-year-old CAP canal. Board members also set the rates Valley cities pay to receive their Colorado River water, determine the amount of property taxes you pay for the CAP system, and establish policies to manage CAP water. The election of CAWCD board members, who serve six-year terms, has always been non-partisan. This year legislation was introduced that would have, in part, made the CAWCD election partisan. AMWUA opposed making CAWCD elections partisan and the Legislature agreed to remove that part of the bill. AMWUA continues to stand for the principle that water in the desert should be a non-partisan issue.

3. AMWUA opposed legislation that would have limited the ability of cities and counties to enter into intergovernmental agreements (IGAs) with other cities, the State, Salt River Project, Central Arizona Project (CAP), and Native American Communities for more than eight years. It would also have required a review of all existing IGAs to verify that a termination date was included. AMWUA testified that cities enter into many water agreements that last for decades to ensure they have a 100-year water supply for all new development and AMWUA cities hold long-term contracts with the Central Arizona Project to assure delivery of their Colorado River water supplies. After several meetings of the bill’s supporters and those who opposed it, no compromise emerged and the bill failed to move to House floor action.

4. AMWUA opposed legislation that would have weakened the State’s authority in managing water in Pinal County and undermined the requirement for new developments to have an assured 100-year water supply before building. This would have threatened the effectiveness of the 1980 Arizona Groundwater Management Act, a key water law that prevents the depletion of the state’s aquifers and is credited with helping Arizona survive a 20-year drought. AMWUA sent a letter to the Speaker of the House of Representative asking him to hold the bill. With key opposition also within Pinal County, the bill never received House floor action. 

AMWUA will be active again next year advocating for sound water policy that builds on the 1980 Groundwater Management Act.  We do this because Valley residents and businesses recognize that managing and investing in water now means a healthy economy and a healthy way of life for their kids and grandkids. If you want to learn more, it’s all in AMWUA’s 2017 Legislative Review.

For 48 years, Arizona Municipal Water Users Association has worked to protect our member cities’ ability to provide assured, safe and sustainable water supplies to their communities. For more water information visit www.amwua.org.

The Whys Behind Changes In Your Water Bill

By Warren Tenney

You may have noticed from time to time changes to your city’s water bill. A city makes adjustments to water and sewer rates to ensure the rates charged to homes and businesses cover the city’s expenses. Such adjustments only happen after being approved by your city council. Here are a few of the rising expenses that impact the cost of a city’s water and sewer services.

Water. Cities are paying more for this precious commodity. For example, the cost of Colorado River water delivered by the Central Arizona Project (CAP) has increased an average of 6.8 percent annually for the last 15 years. The cost for Salt River water delivered by the Salt River Project (SRP) also has increased even if at a lower rate.  Both will continue to rise. For Valley cities, the cost of raw water can be between 10 to 25 percent of their water budget.

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Salt River Project canals deliver water to city treatment plants.   Photo: Michael McNamara 

Energy. Water and wastewater plants and distribution systems use enormous amounts of energy. Energy costs have risen. The extent of this impact is different for all AMWUA cities because each city has a different treatment processes, different elevation changes, and different energy programs. Two AMWUA cities report their energy costs rose about 30 percent over the last 10 years. Cost increases for energy are expected to continue.

Infrastructure. Water runs to homes and businesses 24/7 365 days a year with little interruption. That’s because the pipes, pumps, valves, tanks and meters it takes to make that happen are regularly maintained, repaired and, when needed, replaced. Other infrastructure costs, like expanding or building new treatment plants, occur less frequently but are very expensive.

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City of Peoria utility crew repairs a leak in water infrastructure.

Chemicals. The cost of chemicals needed to treat water and wastewater also are  increasing. Again, the extent of this impact is different for all AMWUA cities. One city reported a 33 percent increase in the cost of chemicals over the last 10 years.

Quality. Standards for safe drinking water evolve as scientific knowledge increases. For example, in 2006 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) changed the level of arsenic permitted in drinking water from 50 parts per billion to 10 parts per billion. That required new equipment in the treatment plants and new pipelines to be built.  EPA is continually assessing non-regulated contaminants to determine if they should be added to safe drinking water standards, which result in higher costs for water providers.

Security. Government regulations to keep water systems safe are increasing as new threats are identified. It costs to secure infrastructure and to train staff to respond effectively in case of emergencies, such as vandalism or a terror attack.

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City of Scottsdale utility crew participates in a drill to keep water flowing during an emergency.

Debt Service. Building and upgrading infrastructure is very expensive and often funded by bonds. These bonds smooth out rate increases by allowing water departments to pay back the debt over long periods of time. Cities work hard to keep their financial houses in order to receive high bond ratings. High bond ratings result in lower interest costs on these debts.

There are costs involved in running a water department that most city residents don’t think about. For example, consider the vehicles necessary to transport water professionals to read meters, take water quality samples, make planned and emergency repairs, and everything else involved to ensure you have water.  One AMWUA city reports that it costs $600,000 a year to maintain its fleet of vehicles.

City water departments want residential and commercial customers involved in helping to maintain water systems that provide reliable services. Some cities have citizen water advisory boards, citizen water information seminars and citizen tours. Learn more about your cities’ water systems and help your neighbors understand that a well maintained water and sewer system that is staffed by knowledgeable professionals is vital to maintaining your city’s economy.

For 48 years, Arizona Municipal Water Users Association has worked to protect our member cities’ ability to provide assured, safe and sustainable water supplies to their communities. For more water information visit www.amwua.org.

Five Things You Need To Know Right Now About Drought

By Warren Tenney

Ongoing headlines about drought in the southwest are confusing and often seem contradictory. Two weeks ago, a panel of experts advised the Governor’s Office that Arizona’s drought is not over and will last, at least, another year. After a rainy winter, that’s a surprise for many people who follow the state’s drought status maps. These monthly drought maps show no portion of Arizona remaining in “extreme” or “severe” drought. Then there is the conundrum created by the decline of Lake Mead, the Colorado River reservoir critical to Arizona’s water supplies. This winter’s heavy snow in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado and Wyoming means Lake Mead will receive enough water to avoid a shortage declaration. Yet, the Lake’s levels remain a source of great concern among water professionals. Oh, and why has California, but not Arizona, declared its drought over?

Here are five questions and the answers you need to know about drought to help you cut through the confusion.

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Here is where to follow Arizona’s monthly drought conditions: http://www.azwater.gov/AzDWR/StatewidePlanning/Drought/DroughtStatus2.htm

1. What is drought?

A drought is not a moment in time. Drought is a cycle. Research shows that drought cycles and wet cycles in Arizona run 20 to 30 years. That’s why you hear water experts say: One rainy winter doesn’t end a drought. One rainy winter can temporarily ease “drought conditions” in some areas of the state. The current drought cycle began around 1996. If rainfall and snowfall continue to be above average over the next several years then Arizona’s climate experts would be more likely to call this drought finished. These same experts say there is a 50 percent chance of that happening. The wild card is climate change.

2. Why is Lake Mead still at worrisome low levels?

Lake Mead is a reservoir that contains Colorado River water behind Hoover Dam. The legal allotments of Lake Mead water given to states and communities outstrip the average amount of Colorado River water entering the Lake. Even without a drought, normal withdrawals of water from Lake Mead would cause it to fall an average of 12 feet every year.  The drought on the Colorado River Basin has exacerbated the situation.  Voluntary efforts by states that depend on Lake Mead have kept it from falling to a level where the federal government would declare a shortage. A shortage declaration would mean less Colorado River water would be delivered to Arizona. It would affect farmers first, but if Lake Mead levels fall farther, Colorado River water supplies to cities would eventually be cut.  So far, the Colorado River has been able to keep delivering, but living on the edge of shortage is unacceptable to water managers. The Arizona Department of Water Resources is working with the state’s cities, Native American communities, farmers and industries to voluntarily cut back on water taken from Mead. Once Arizona reaches an internal agreement it can finish negotiations with California, Nevada and Mexico to voluntarily reduce legal allotments of Colorado River water to match the reality of what the river can supply. Right now, Lake Mead is only 10 feet higher than it was this time last year.

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Lake Mead

3. After 20 years of drought, why are Arizona’s water supplies not critically low?

Drought is a normal occurrence in our arid environment. Central Arizona has built, planned, and managed water supplies to ensure reliability during drought cycles.  Massive reservoirs capture water during wet periods for times when precipitation is scarce. The Arizona Groundwater Act of 1980 requires cities and farmers in the most populated areas of the state to implement conservation programs, protect the groundwater from over pumping and rely on renewable surface (river) water instead. The majority of the state’s water supply comes from the Colorado River via the Central Arizona Project (CAP) and the Salt River via Salt River Project (SRP).  Virtually all wastewater is recycled and put to use, and water is stored underground for use in shortage.  A limited amount of groundwater is pumped from the aquifers for use, as well. Multiple sources of water allow cities to offset reductions in one or more supplies. For example, Arizona’s drought has reduced the amount of water in SRP reservoirs in the mountains east of Phoenix, but SRP has been able to offset possible shortages by pumping from its numerous wells. Arizona law requires Valley cities to offset every acre-foot of groundwater SRP pumps by recharging (or returning water to) the aquifers from their renewable water supplies, such as extra Colorado River water (ordered but not immediately needed) or recycled wastewater. This keeps the Valley’s aquifers in good condition and hedges against shortages.

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Granite Reef Underground Storage Project   Photo: Mark Durben

4. So, if we’re in good shape, do we still need to conserve water?

We live in a desert. Long-term, ongoing conservation efforts are something AMWUA member cities promote tirelessly, and for good reason. Drought is an uncontrollable weather phenomenon and the impact of climate change is unknown. Our groundwater supplies are finite. Once used, aquifers replenish over decades, not years, and usually not to previous capacity. Using less water on a daily basis means leaving more water in the ground and storing more water for a time when river water supplies are short. If shortages were to prevent cities from meeting normal, everyday demands for water, all AMWUA cities, by law, have shortage-preparedness plans ready to go. These plans are designed to incrementally reduce water use to bring demand in line with available supplies while protecting our quality of life and the economy. Despite that, no city wants to declare a water shortage. So for now, keep taking those short showers, keep watering those shade trees efficiently, and keep using water wisely. Your city will let you know when it needs more help.

5. Why is Arizona’s drought continuing while California has declared that its drought is over?

California has declared an end to the drought’s State of Emergency, but that doesn’t mean it is entirely out of the drought that has gripped the state since 2012. Due to the economic impacts of ongoing drought, record low reservoir levels, and snowpack at 20 percent of normal levels, California’s governor declared in January 2014 a State of Emergency. In January 2015, with no end to drought in site, cities and towns across the state were required to reduce water use by 25 percent. Recent record-breaking precipitation freed the northern part of the state from drought and refilled the majority of reservoirs, allowing the state to rescind the mandatory water use reductions and lift the emergency declaration for all but four counties. However, almost half the state remains in severe drought.

Arizona’s current drought began around 1996.  Arizona’s Drought Emergency Declaration has been in effect since June 1999 and still remains in effect. We haven’t yet seen enough wet weather across the state to lift either the drought or the declaration. 

For 48 years, Arizona Municipal Water Users Association has worked to protect our member cities’ ability to provide assured, safe and sustainable water supplies to their communities. For more water information visit www.amwua.org.

Regional Partnerships Keep Water Affordable

By Warren Tenney

It is not easy for cities to build, staff and operate water and wastewater treatment plants and still maintain water and wastewater rates all residents can afford. That’s why Central Arizona cities traditionally work together to build regional treatment plants that can deliver more water for less money.

Valley cities treat two kinds of water for drinking: most of it is surface water, which is Colorado, Salt and Verde river water delivered by canals, and some groundwater pumped by wells. Cities also treat and recycle wastewater. The treated wastewater is stored underground for future use and also used to irrigate large expanses of turf, such as at schools, parks and golf courses. One of the Phoenix Metropolitan area’s oldest joint water projects is the 91st Avenue Wastewater Treatment Plant built in 1968. It is operated by Phoenix but owned and used by AMWUA’s five original member cities: Glendale, Mesa, Phoenix, Scottsdale and Tempe. Most of the treated wastewater this plant produces is shipped through a pipe to cool the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station 36 miles west of the plant.

 

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Pyramid Peak Water Treatment Plant is jointly owned by the cities of Peoria and Glendale.  Photo: Black & Veatch

 

For the next 50 years, joint water and wastewater plants were built all over the Valley to expand capacity, reduce costs and add redundancy. Water professionals are never satisfied with “enough” water. Cities build redundancy into their water supplies and systems to ensure water flows to their residents and businesses despite shortages, infrastructure failures or large fires. For example, the City of Peoria’s goal is to have a six-year supply of water stored underground and the city is about two thirds of the way to meeting that goal.

Right now, the cities of Peoria and Glendale are working on an upgrade and expansion of a water treatment plant they jointly own just north of Happy Valley Road near N. 63rd Avenue. Pyramid Peak Water Treatment Plant was originally built by Glendale in 1986 to provide drinking water to homes and businesses on the city’s growing north end.

 

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Inside the Pyramid Peak Water Treatment Plant   Photo: City of Glendale

 

In 1996, the City of Peoria needed to bring its allocation of Colorado River water through the Central Arizona Project (CAP) canal to the homes and businesses growing on its north end. Peoria already had the Greenway Water Treatment Plant where it treated its supply of Salt and Verde river water (delivered by Salt River Project) and had numerous wells located throughout the city.

Peoria faced the expense of building, staffing and operating its own plant, including the extended process needed to create a separate turnout into the CAP canal. Seeking a better solution, Peoria approached neighboring Glendale with a plan. Peoria would pay Glendale to expand the existing Pyramid Peak Water Treatment plant to increase production from 30 million gallons per day (mgd) to 39 mgd.  Peoria paid for and received the capacity to produce drinking water at the rate of 9 mgd and meet Peoria’s current and future needs. Glendale would continue to operate the plant but the two cities would be co-owners and share operating costs proportionally. The agreement was signed May 15, 1996 and the expansion completed by July 21, 1998.

Last year the cities signed an agreement to once again expand Pyramid Peak Water Treatment Plant. The new expansion will produce an additional 15 million gallons per day (mgd) to serve Peoria’s growing northwest neighborhoods. This expansion will increase the plant production from 39 mgd to 54 mgd.  The entire project includes the expansion and upgrades to the existing facility and will cost about $72 million. Glendale and Peoria will proportionally share the $22 million cost to replace and upgrade the older equipment in the plant, such as pumps and tanks. Peoria will pay $50 million for the expansion and fund this part of the project through the Water Infrastructure Finance Authority (WIFA). WIFA is a small federal agency that provides revolving loans to utilities to improve, build or expand water infrastructure.

Glendale held its first open house in April to gain input from the plant’s neighbors. The cities expect construction to start in the summer of 2019 and the plant to be operating by the summer of 2021. This partnership is just one more example of how water professionals consistently collaborate to solve large and small water challenges.

For 48 years, Arizona Municipal Water Users Association has worked to protect our member cities’ ability to provide assured, safe and sustainable water supplies to their communities. For more water information visit www.amwua.org.

So, Exactly How Much Water Are We Talking About?

By Warren Tenney

When it comes to meeting the water needs of a thriving desert economy, the amounts can really add up. Communicating these amounts in a way we can relate to sometimes misses the mark. We’ve all read or heard something like “That’s enough water to fill 200 Olympic size swimming pools.” It’s not an easy example to imagine, other than to think, “I guess that’s a lot of water.”

Trying to understand water news or even your water bill can be a challenge given the different measurements used. Just like we have feet, kilometers and miles for distance and Fahrenheit, Celsius and kelvin for temperature, water is measured with different units depending on the context. No one would talk about the distance between Phoenix and Tucson in feet and water professionals do not generally talk about the amount of water stored behind Hoover Dam in gallons.

Here’s a quick guide to some of the ways you see water measured in media reports, research, and your water bill.

Gallon: This is the easiest one but the most important. Everyone knows what a gallon of milk looks like. Nearly all water bills display usage in gallons. The average single-family home in Phoenix uses an average of just over 10,000 gallons per month (more in the summer, of course, and less in the winter). These 10,000 gallons of water per month are a real bargain. They’re delivered to your home ready to drink for one-third of a penny per gallon. If average cost-conscious water consumers tried to replace the water service to their homes with generic refillable five-gallon jugs at their local grocery store, their water bills would be around $2,500 per month. Not to mention the transportation costs of moving over 2,000 of those jugs.

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91st Avenue Waste Water Treatment Plant  Photo: City of Phoenix

MGD (million gallons per day): This measurement is used most often in the context of water delivery and sewer systems. For example, the City of Goodyear recently announced it would construct an eight “mgd” water treatment plant to treat a portion of its supply of Colorado River water. An average flow of just one mgd is enough water to supply nearly 3,000 average single-family homes in Phoenix annually. On the larger end of the scale, the state’s largest wastewater treatment plant at 91st Avenue in southwest Phoenix treats an average of 140 mgd but has the capacity to treat 230 mgd. Much of the treated wastewater from this facility is used to cool the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station.

AF (acre-foot): This measurement takes a little imagination. It is the volume of water it would take to cover one acre of land in one foot of water  – or 325,851 gallons. If it helps, it takes two “AF” to fill an Olympic-sized swimming pool and is how much water three average Phoenix metro households use in a year. Acre-feet are usually used to measure huge volumes of raw, untreated water, such as how much water is in a reservoir. Here’s an incomprehensible number: each year 1.5 million acre-feet of Colorado River water flows through the Central Arizona Project canal delivering a renewable supply of water to Arizona’s cities, industries and farmers. 

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CAP Canal near Picacho Peak  Photo: Central Arizona Project

ccf (centum cubic feet): For us non-Latin speakers, “ccf” is 100 cubic feet. One hundred cubic feet would fill a 5-by-5 feet box that is 4-feet tall  – or 748 gallons. While most AMWUA cities calculate water bills in gallons, if you receive a water bill from the City of Phoenix and examine it closely, you’ll see it is based in ‘units’ of water with each unit being one ccf. The average Phoenix single-family home uses 13.6 ccfs per month. Why use ccfs and not gallons? The city’s old water meters were designed to track your usage in ccfs and it is too costly to change the billing system.

cfs (cubic feet per second): “Cfs” is used to measure rates of flow, such as in rivers, canals, or large pipes. For example, the Mississippi River discharges an average of 600,000 cfs into the Gulf of Mexico. The Central Arizona Project canal, by comparison, delivers an average of 2,100 cfs to the state’s cities, industries and farmers. Cfs numbers vary widely depending on their context but even very low numbers can really add up. Consider this, a flow of just one cfs means 7.5 gallons every second. A flow rate of only one cfs over the course of a single day equals the amount of water used by about five average Phoenix single-family homes during an entire year.

Understanding and relating to water information is crucial to participating in the ongoing discussions about how Arizona can ensure we all have clean, reliable, affordable water supplies. Numbers make up a big part of that discussion.

For 48 years, Arizona Municipal Water Users Association has worked to protect our member cities’ ability to provide assured, safe and sustainable water supplies to their communities. For more water information visit www.amwua.org.

Good Connection: Goodyear Brings Its Water Home

By Warren Tenney

The City of Goodyear is a 189-square-mile West Valley community with 78,190 residents. Goodyear expects its population to grow significantly. These big city dreams and big city plans present both opportunities and challenges. One challenge relates to water: Goodyear never had direct access to its renewable supply of Colorado River water – until now.

The Problem: Instead of river water, Goodyear has grown with a water supply pumped from its aquifers. The city has known for years that it cannot build a long-term water plan based on finite, non-renewable and state regulated groundwater. In addition to limits on groundwater supplies, groundwater pumped from aquifers in the Southwest Valley is extremely salty. The salinity level in one Goodyear well tested at one-third the salinity of ocean water. Living with salty groundwater has forced Goodyear to build the largest reverse osmosis water treatment plant in the state. The plant leaves behind 500,000 gallons of brine each day. While the plant is a necessary part of Goodyear’s water operations, the city has been looking at other options as it plans for future growth.

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Central Arizona Project canal   Photo: CAP

Goodyear has an allotment of renewable Colorado River water, but the city has never built a system to transport and treat the water for drinking. Instead, the city has been storing some of its Colorado River water in underground or “recharge” facilities. Storing the water in aquifers outside its city gives Goodyear a limited right to pump and deliver a roughly equivalent amount of water in the city. Arizona law also allows cities to use a limited amount of “native” groundwater. For Goodyear, this comes out to 13,191 acre-feet of water per year. (One acre foot is enough to serve three average Arizona households for a year.) Goodyear estimates that it will approach that limit by about 2020.

Goodyear understood that it had to get its full allotment of Colorado River water into its city, build a plant to treat the water, and curtail its groundwater pumping. Goodyear’s first challenge was to find a way to bring its Colorado River water into the city. The Central Arizona Project (CAP) operates a canal that delivers Colorado River water to the Valley, but the canal is 35 miles to the north and 45 miles west of the city. Building a water pipeline from the CAP canal to the city would cost $200 million and require expensive easements either through other cities or along Interstate 10.

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Granite Reef Dam  Photo: SRP

The Solution: For years, Goodyear has been studying less costly options and, as with most water successes, compromise and collaboration proved to be the solution. Here’s how the problem was resolved:

  • The Salt River Project (SRP) provides water to cities in a nearly 400-square-mile area of the Valley. This service area was defined more than 100 years ago by the farmers and ranchers who offered their land to the federal government as collateral for financing and building the Roosevelt Dam on the Salt River. Roosevelt Lake is the largest reservoir in a system of reservoirs and canals that brings Salt and Verde River water into the Valley. Property within SRP’s service area is called “on project” land.
  • Goodyear is just outside of the area served by SRP or “off project” and has no access to SRP water or its canals. Just next door to Goodyear, the City of Avondale is within the SRP service area. The SRP canal that brings water to Avondale is 5 miles from Goodyear.
  • SRP’s delivery system intersects with the CAP canal near Granite Reef Dam in the East Valley. This means it is possible to transport CAP water through SRP’s canals.

To address Goodyear’s challenge, the Salt River Project (SRP) recently agreed to convey Goodyear’s share of CAP water in its canals as far as Avondale and, from there, Goodyear will build a pipeline to a new drinking water plant. This is the first time SRP has agreed to convey Colorado River water for an “off project” city. Now that Goodyear will have access to its Colorado River water, it will proceed to build a short pipeline from Avondale to Goodyear’s new drinking water treatment plant.

 Phase I of the project is estimated to cost $110 million. Impact fees, new growth, and construction sales taxes are expected to fund about 75 percent of the costs. Operational changes in the city’s water system will pay for 20 percent, and 5 percent will be covered by existing water rates. Goodyear expects to be treating and distributing Colorado River water in the next three to five years.

Finding creative solutions to challenging problems is a hallmark of the Valley’s water providers. Goodyear’s innovative project is just one more example of how the AMWUA cities work to find solutions every day to provide reliable and clean water to the Valley’s homes, businesses, and communities.

For 48 years, Arizona Municipal Water Users Association has worked to protect our member cities’ ability to provide assured, safe and sustainable water supplies to their communities. For more water information visit www.amwua.org.

Sen. John Kyl: Compromise Is Key To Water Leadership

By Warren Tenney

This month, former Senator Jon Kyl told a gathering of elected officials and water professionals that Arizona’s past water successes had one thing in common: the willingness of competing forces to compromise for the good of the state. Now, Senator Kyl said, it is time we do it again.

Senator Kyl is a water lawyer who represented Arizona’s citizens for 25 years, first in the U.S. House and then the Senate. He was the guest of honor at an Arizona Water Reception, which brought together state legislators, mayors, city council members and others to highlight the importance of water issues for state leaders. The reception was held in downtown Phoenix and hosted by AMWUA with the help of nine sponsors.

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City of Goodyear Councilmember Joanne Osborne, a member of AMWUA’s Board of Directors, arrives at the Arizona Water Reception. Sen. Jon Kyl (right) was guest of honor. 

Arizona’s legacy of resolving difficult water issues offers a template to help solve today’s challenges, Senator Kyl said. Speaking of this tradition, he said that by “ making compromises for the good of the state – in a non-partisan way – we avoided those challenges becoming crises.” He pointed out some examples of compromises that solved big water challenges for Arizona.

  • Salt River Project. More than 100 years ago, Arizona farmers and ranchers from Mesa to Avondale agreed to offer their land as collateral to finance a federal loan to build Roosevelt Dam. Roosevelt Lake and a series of smaller reservoirs and canals became the largest source of water for the Phoenix Metro area. Salt River Project (SRP) operates the system to this day.
  • Central Arizona Project. After World War II, Arizona needed to bring its share of the Colorado River to Central Arizona, where its population was booming. Taking the water required an agreement among neighboring states, in particular California, before the federal government would agree to finance and build a 360-mile canal to transport the river’s water to central Arizona. Today, the Central Arizona Project (CAP) provides almost 40 percent of the water used by the AMWUA cities.
  • Groundwater Management Act. The 1980 Groundwater Management Act regulated and slowed the pumping of groundwater that was drawing down aquifers in the state’s most populous areas. The Act was the result of rancorous but successful negotiations among cities, mining companies, and agriculture, as documented in Groundwater: To Enact a Law for the Common Good, a documentary screened during the Water Reception.

Among the most pressing unresolved issues facing the state right now are falling water tables in some rural communities, Senator Kyl said. The Groundwater Management Act does not regulate groundwater pumping  in rural areas of the state as tightly as it does in urban areas.  Now, conflicts are brewing in many rural communities over new wells and decreasing water levels in underground aquifers.

 The state must also resolve the question of who has the right to use the state’s surface water supplies.  This seemingly simple question has been the source of litigation in the state for the last 40 years in a complex court case involving tens of thousands of parties in what is known as the “General Stream Adjudication.” This case complicates Arizona water policy because it makes it nearly impossible for thousands of water users to have legal assurance regarding their water rights.

In the context of his remarks about eventually resolving the General Stream Adjudication, Senator Kyl said that in the course of his public service he has learned that proposed solutions do not last if there are winners and losers. All sides must win at least 80 percent of what they want to create a successful and lasting resolution. When it comes to resolving the General Stream Adjudication, that may mean finding additional sources of water through augmentation and recognizing the impact of the Adjudication on small water users, Senator Kyl said.

Solutions to these complex problems depend on data collection, analysis and oversight by the Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR). Speaking to Legislators in the audience about the importance of ADWR, Senator Kyl said: “Whatever they need, make sure they have it because their technical work is essential to the resolution of all these disputes.” He also remarked that in his view, ADWR is the number one economic development agency of the state. He observed that investors and businesses want to invest in a community that has a firm water supply in place.

Senator Kyl said he is optimistic that Arizona’s leaders will come together to overcome these and other water-related challenges.  This is particularly the case when he sees so many of Arizona’s leaders knowledgeable about water and eager to learn. “The thing is you got to have an open mind and you’re going to have to really think things through,” he told the gathering. “You have to have a sense of destiny in that these are big problems for the future of the state.” 

The Arizona Water Reception was another step toward bringing leaders together who can solve these big problems. Now, it’s everyone’s responsibility to keep elected officials working on solutions for the common good, so our grandchildren and their children, will know we also had the will to act – and to compromise – on their behalf.

For 48 years, Arizona Municipal Water Users Association has worked to protect our member cities’ ability to provide assured, safe and sustainable water supplies to their communities. For more water information visit www.amwua.org.