Partnership Makes Desert Golf Courses Sustainable

By Warren Tenney

Since 1998, the City of Scottsdale has been treating about half of its wastewater to near drinking water standards. It’s an expensive process that uses reverse osmosis technology, but the city isn’t paying for all of it. The cost to build and operate the plant is shared between Scottsdale and 23 private north Scottsdale golf courses that use the water to keep their greens pristine.

It’s more difficult to keep golf courses green when irrigation water has a high salt content.  Saltier water means watering the greens more often and using more fertilizer. Before building the Advanced Water Treatment (AWT) Facility, the golf courses used untreated or “raw” Colorado River water delivered to the city by Central Arizona Project. The raw water has a salt content of about 600 to 650 milligrams per liter (mg/l). Wastewater recycled at the Advanced Water Treatment Facility is blended with raw CAP water and yields water with a sodium concentration below 125 mg/l, a level required to fulfill the city’s agreement with the golf courses. Using this low-salinity recycled water means the courses can use less water and fertilizer to maintain higher-quality greens. It also means the city can save more raw water to treat for drinking.

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Ozone piping at Scottsdale’s Advanced Water Treatment Facility

The water that flows out of your home from your sink, shower, toilets and laundry and into the sewage system is traditionally called wastewater. The name no longer really applies for AMWUA cities. Nearly 100 percent of what was once wasted effluent is treated by the cities and put back to use.  In other words, water is reused.  Treated wastewater from five AMWUA cities – including the other half of Scottsdale’s wastewater – is sent through a 36-mile pipe to cool the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. Cities also use treated wastewater to irrigate parks, create fishing lakes and wetlands, or save underground for future use, which is called “recharging” the aquifers. Wastewater is now a renewable water source, most often called recycled water or reclaimed water.

All reclaimed water used in parks, golf courses, HOA common areas, school playgrounds or church campuses is treated to what the state deems as A+ quality. Grade A quality means the water is treated and disinfected until there are no routine, detectable disease-causing bacteria. It moves up to A+ when the treatment process also removes nitrogen compounds, which can contaminate groundwater. Scottsdale’s advanced treatment plant goes one giant step further. It uses reverse osmosis to remove mainly salts and inorganic materials from the recycled water produced at the plant.

Wastewater always has a high salt content because it passes through homes and businesses, picking up salt from cooling towers, food and other waste. Chemicals used to treat wastewater also add salt to the end product. The salinity of Scottsdale’s wastewater from homes in the northern part of the city is particularly high, around 1,100 milligrams per liter. Scottsdale estimates that water softeners account for more than 30 percent of the total salt concentration in the wastewater system. Water softeners work by exchanging salt for hard minerals, such as calcium and magnesium, creating soft water for homeowners but dumping the salty brine discharge into the sewer system.

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Water not used by Golf Courses is saved underground via a recharge well like this one.   Photos: City of Scottsdale

The advanced treatment plant is capable of producing 20 million gallons a day of low-salinity recycled water, although current rates of wastewater flowing into the plant are closer to 10 million gallons. In the summer, the golf courses use all of that water. When temperatures climb into the 110-degree range and above, recycled water is supplemented with raw water to meet summer irrigation demands. During winter months, the golf courses typically need an average of only 3 to 5 million gallons per day and, after a few rainy days, that need may drop to zero. Any additional low-salinity water produced at the plant is saved underground at the Scottsdale Water Campus for future use. Scottsdale also uses ozone and UV treatments on the water it saves underground to recharge the aquifer. These processes remove “emerging contaminants,” which are contaminants the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is studying, but has not yet regulated. 

Scottsdale wanted to support its golf economy, but not use its precious drinking water supplies for irrigation. The dilemma was solved nearly two decades ago by a public-private partnership and technology. Today they call that innovation. Twenty years ago, it was just smart.

For 48 years, Arizona Municipal Water Users Association has worked to protect our member cities’ ability to provide assured, safe and sustainable water supplies to their communities. For more water information visit www.amwua.org.

Fix A Leak Week: Time To Hunt Down Leaks That Are Draining Your Budget

By Warren Tenney

Water leaks inside and outside the average American home waste up to 10,000 gallons of water a year. This drain on the country’s drinking water supply is so critical that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s WaterSense Program dedicates a week each year to remind us to find and fix leaks. Fix A Leak Week is especially important to desert dwellers. A household may use as much as 70 percent of its drinking water outside. Keeping your landscape healthy and your pool full is one thing, but without regular maintenance irrigation and pool equipment are prone to wasteful leaks.

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Outdoor leaks are not as obvious and annoying as a dripping faucet, which makes them more difficult to detect and easier to ignore. It takes little time and very little know-how to keep these leaks in check. Water efficiency professionals at AMWUA cities understand this and want to help.

1. Get help from AMWUA’s #SmartPig. Let the AMWUA #SmartPig be your guide to the valuable information at the Smart Home Water Guide website. The guide shows homeowners how to find leaks inside and outside – and how even the least talented do-it-yourselfers can fix them. Water efficiency professionals from AMWUA cities developed this website and translated their experience, knowledge and methods into short and clearly illustrated lessons anyone can understand. Some outdoor leaks are obvious, such as water pooling around a sprinkler head. Leaks in pool equipment are tougher to spot. These leaks leave small wet spots that can evaporate quickly or white crusty mineral deposits that pool owners may not know indicate a leak. The guide is built for mobile devices so you can carry it around your home and yard on a phone or tablet. The guide allows you to check off steps as you complete your water-leak audit over the course of a day, a week or a month. The information in the website is also available as a free 24-page booklet in English and Spanish. Just call your city’s water efficiency professional and ask. The Spanish language guide also is available online as a flip-book.SmartPig_Final

2. Talk with your landscaper about water. Your landscaper can help you find and fix leaks in your irrigation system and ensure it’s running as efficiently as possible. Let your landscaper know that saving water is important to you. More than twenty years ago, Arizona recognized that landscapers could help their customers save money and help cities save water. With that goal in mind, Tucson Water, AMWUA, the University of Arizona’s Cooperative Extension and industry partners launched Smartscape. It is a low-cost desert-landscape training program for professionals. Since then, Smartscape has added advanced training dedicated to installing and managing irrigation systems. Since 1994, more than 1,300 professionals have completed Smartscape training in Maricopa County. A list of Smartscape trained landscapers is available online.

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3. Watch your water bill. If you have a spike in water usage that you can’t track down, call your city. But don’t be surprised if your city contacts you first. In some AMWUA cities, employees review individual water usage and billing data for all customers before sending out monthly bills. When employees discover a sudden spike in a monthly bill, they contact homeowners, send a postcard, or post a message to their water bill and offer help to find the source of the problem. Advances in water meter technology can now provide a city and a homeowner with valuable data that can help find a leak. When a spike in water usage is detected, an employee can download 96 days of water usage information – hour by hour – from the water meter in your front yard or back alley. This information is a valuable clue to what is causing the spike. The data may show a homeowner is suddenly using 2,000 gallons of water every other morning at 2:30 a.m. That indicates something on a timer, like an automated irrigation system set to water the yard. Perhaps a broken drip line is gushing instead of dripping. The data makes it easier for the homeowner and city employee to work together to find the leak.

New technology will eventually make it easier for homeowners to detect leaks on their own. Imagine watching your water consumption online in real time. The new water meter reading system is known as “advanced meter infrastructure” or AMI. While some cities are piloting AMI systems, the City of Tempe is pursuing the most ambitious meter conversion in the Valley. All Tempe water customers will have access to their water use online by early 2019. The AMI system helps to alert you sooner to a change in your water use. Being able to see patterns in your hourly water use gives you a better opportunity to pinpoint a leak and know where to investigate.

While technology is helping to find leaks, it still requires us to take action to fix them. Valley weather is always beautiful during Fix a Leak Week. It’s a perfect time to turn on your irrigation system and pool equipment and learn to find and fix leaks that are draining your budget and our drinking water supplies.

AMWUA is a long-standing WaterSense Partner and an active participant in the annual Fix a Leak Week campaign.  This year, we are pleased to host the annual #FixaLeak Week Twitter party as @FixaLeakWeekAZ on Monday, March 20, at 2 p.m. Eastern.

For 48 years, Arizona Municipal Water Users Association has worked to protect our member cities’ ability to provide assured, safe and sustainable water supplies to their communities. For more water information visit www.amwua.org.

Good Connection: Goodyear Brings Its Water Home

By Warren Tenney

The City of Goodyear is a 189-square-mile West Valley community with 78,190 residents. Goodyear expects its population to grow significantly. These big city dreams and big city plans present both opportunities and challenges. One challenge relates to water: Goodyear never had direct access to its renewable supply of Colorado River water – until now.

The Problem: Instead of river water, Goodyear has grown with a water supply pumped from its aquifers. The city has known for years that it cannot build a long-term water plan based on finite, non-renewable and state regulated groundwater. In addition to limits on groundwater supplies, groundwater pumped from aquifers in the Southwest Valley is extremely salty. The salinity level in one Goodyear well tested at one-third the salinity of ocean water. Living with salty groundwater has forced Goodyear to build the largest reverse osmosis water treatment plant in the state. The plant leaves behind 500,000 gallons of brine each day. While the plant is a necessary part of Goodyear’s water operations, the city has been looking at other options as it plans for future growth.

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Central Arizona Project canal   Photo: CAP

Goodyear has an allotment of renewable Colorado River water, but the city has never built a system to transport and treat the water for drinking. Instead, the city has been storing some of its Colorado River water in underground or “recharge” facilities. Storing the water in aquifers outside its city gives Goodyear a limited right to pump and deliver a roughly equivalent amount of water in the city. Arizona law also allows cities to use a limited amount of “native” groundwater. For Goodyear, this comes out to 13,191 acre-feet of water per year. (One acre foot is enough to serve three average Arizona households for a year.) Goodyear estimates that it will approach that limit by about 2020.

Goodyear understood that it had to get its full allotment of Colorado River water into its city, build a plant to treat the water, and curtail its groundwater pumping. Goodyear’s first challenge was to find a way to bring its Colorado River water into the city. The Central Arizona Project (CAP) operates a canal that delivers Colorado River water to the Valley, but the canal is 35 miles to the north and 45 miles west of the city. Building a water pipeline from the CAP canal to the city would cost $200 million and require expensive easements either through other cities or along Interstate 10.

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Granite Reef Dam  Photo: SRP

The Solution: For years, Goodyear has been studying less costly options and, as with most water successes, compromise and collaboration proved to be the solution. Here’s how the problem was resolved:

  • The Salt River Project (SRP) provides water to cities in a nearly 400-square-mile area of the Valley. This service area was defined more than 100 years ago by the farmers and ranchers who offered their land to the federal government as collateral for financing and building the Roosevelt Dam on the Salt River. Roosevelt Lake is the largest reservoir in a system of reservoirs and canals that brings Salt and Verde River water into the Valley. Property within SRP’s service area is called “on project” land.
  • Goodyear is just outside of the area served by SRP or “off project” and has no access to SRP water or its canals. Just next door to Goodyear, the City of Avondale is within the SRP service area. The SRP canal that brings water to Avondale is 5 miles from Goodyear.
  • SRP’s delivery system intersects with the CAP canal near Granite Reef Dam in the East Valley. This means it is possible to transport CAP water through SRP’s canals.

To address Goodyear’s challenge, the Salt River Project (SRP) recently agreed to convey Goodyear’s share of CAP water in its canals as far as Avondale and, from there, Goodyear will build a pipeline to a new drinking water plant. This is the first time SRP has agreed to convey Colorado River water for an “off project” city. Now that Goodyear will have access to its Colorado River water, it will proceed to build a short pipeline from Avondale to Goodyear’s new drinking water treatment plant.

 Phase I of the project is estimated to cost $110 million. Impact fees, new growth, and construction sales taxes are expected to fund about 75 percent of the costs. Operational changes in the city’s water system will pay for 20 percent, and 5 percent will be covered by existing water rates. Goodyear expects to be treating and distributing Colorado River water in the next three to five years.

Finding creative solutions to challenging problems is a hallmark of the Valley’s water providers. Goodyear’s innovative project is just one more example of how the AMWUA cities work to find solutions every day to provide reliable and clean water to the Valley’s homes, businesses, and communities.

For 48 years, Arizona Municipal Water Users Association has worked to protect our member cities’ ability to provide assured, safe and sustainable water supplies to their communities. For more water information visit www.amwua.org.

On The Job: Water Treatment Supervisor Uses Brains, Heart And A Little Muscle

By Warren Tenney

Luiza Yordanova appreciates the Valley’s winter weather as much as we all do but winter makes her job as supervisor of a City of Tempe drinking water treatment plant a bit more complicated. She sat down on a beautiful day earlier this winter to explain why.

In the winter, the Johnny G. Martinez Treatment Plant gets raw water from the Verde River instead of its summer mix of water from the Salt and Verde rivers. The cooler temperatures and the switch to predominantly Verde River water means Luiza and her team need to readjust chemicals and treatment processes to maintain drinking water standards.

Luiza’s plant also was the sole provider of water to businesses and residents because Tempe’s second drinking water plant was shut down for its routine annual maintenance. Luiza’s plant shuts down for annual maintenance in January  and devising a schedule to squeeze in all the work she wanted to accomplish was keeping her up at night.

Luiza also was waiting for a new piece of plant equipment to be delivered and a crew of workers were installing solar panels on the roof of the plant’s water reservoir to provide alternative power. She also had just finished writing a presentation about “enhanced coagulation” that she submitted to this year’s AZ Water Association conference. If accepted, it would be her third presentation at the conference. Luiza called her work as a Plant Supervisor “a beautiful job with beautiful people.”

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Luiza supervises 10 people – plant operators, electricians, mechanics and technicians. Every morning begins the same way: checking on the quality of water being distributed by the plant via the technology available on her computer. Then, at 6:55 a.m. she’s opening the door of the control room where she visits with the midnight operator and the over night crew and welcomes the arriving day-shift crew. They talk together about the quality of the water the plant is producing and maintenance needed on the plant’s equipment. “Communications with technicians, all the trade groups, with the operator, it’s my key,” Luiza said.

On this particular day, “finish water pump” number five had a maintenance problem withluiza-jgm its couplings and seals. It also looked as if pump six would need maintenance at least on its couplings. The plant has eight pumps. This redundancy allows for continual repair and maintenance while drinking water is always being pumped for distribution 24 hours a day every day. Maintenance of the equipment is one of Luiza and her crew’s top responsibilities.

“Equipment runs the plant but operators monitor the equipment, so this is my major job,” Luiza said. She also is responsible for managing people, keeping inventory, ordering chemicals, and ensuring the process used to treat the water is producing safe, reliable drinking water for Tempe homes and businesses. To get it right, Luiza depends on her team members. She spends 80 percent of her time on the floor talking with her crew and sometimes helps them with their jobs.

“It’s not because I have to, it’s because I choose to,” Luiza said. “I choose to because, for me, talking to people and learning the problems from them and thinking about their solutions gives me more opinions. They work around the equipment more than I do, so they can be useful.”

Luiza also uses the time to monitor her staff members and make sure they are concentrating on work and not problems at home, such as a sick child. Luiza can’t afford distracted employees in a water treatment plant and sends her employees home until they can come back ready to concentrate on the job at hand. “This is part of my understanding of leadership,” she said.

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Luiza, 54, explained all this while gently rolling her Rs. She and her accent are from Bulgaria where she managed the country’s largest cement manufacturing plant in Devnya for 19 years. The plant also ran the water and wastewater treatment plant for the city. Luiza is a chemical engineer and is studying to become a certified professional engineer in the United States. It’s simply a matter of learning new technical terms, she said.

Moving to the United States from a country and a job she loved happened quickly for Luiza. It began in January 2005 while exchanging information with a retired Oregon engineer on LinkedIn about industrial materials used in the production of cement. She invited him to visit her cement factory in May 2005 and he accepted. That’s when Luiza said their conversation “veered away from cement.” After several more trips and by January 2006 the divorced mother of a grown daughter was in the United States, married to her engineer from Oregon and looking for a job. She spent time as a quality control manager at a Midwest cement manufacturing plant that closed down and the City of Tempe hired her in 2010 as a water treatment plant operator.

Luiza lives in the City of Chandler. She grew up along the Black Sea and enjoys traveling to beaches on both the west and east coasts. She hikes, plays a mean game of chess and her husband got her hooked on novels about detectives who solve crimes using science. As an afterthought Luiza mentioned she speaks four languages – Bulgarian, Russian, English and German. “I started learning Italian but I’m thinking of switching to Spanish,” she said. “I like Italian pronunciation but I think Spanish is more useful here.”

For 48 years, Arizona Municipal Water Users Association has worked to protect our member cities’ ability to provide assured, safe and sustainable water supplies to their communities. For more water information visit www.amwua.org.